The Sout East

The Sout East



The Meonhill vineyard site was first discovered by Richard Colt Hoare in 1808. Within the course of his excavations, a local resident provided Hoare with information about flint tools found on or around the vineyard, along with bones and antlers he thought to be associated with Bronze Age barrows at nearby Jones's Wood. A later dig by William Cunnington uncovered a piece of charcoal from a timber structure which produced Romano-British pottery. Cunnington's work was commemorated through a monument he had made, which was erected by the side of the road until it was blown down in an 1872 gale.

In 1882 the vineyard came under archaeological investigation by Harcourt Charles John Key, Hampshire Local ( Caesar's advance party reached the area just after crossing the river Itchen, somewhere near its junction with the Meon that is marked today by a plaque. The main force of Roman troops reached Winchester from the direction of near Petersfield and through the valley of the River Meon on their approach to a place believed to be Old Alresford. There are several theories as to where precisely Caesar's force crossed the Meon and advanced towards Old Alresford, but there is no doubt it was somewhere close to the area of the current golf course.

Romans are mostly known for the things that have survived, but when they left in the early fifth century, wine-growing went with them. Winemaking died out entirely until the early 17th century when Oliver Cromwell, who controlled the nation's religion and who was himself an enthusiastic bibber, took a fancy to wine from Constantia in South Africa. He sent 75 cuttings back to England which Charles II bought on his behalf. The Meon Valley on the Hampshire West Sussex border is the southern part of a large geological fault depression that runs between Winchester and Chichester.


The South East is one of the most highly educated regions in the European Union. With 33. 8% of 25–64-year-olds holding a tertiary qualification, the region ranks fourth amongst EU regions (behind Inner London, Flanders and West Midlands respectively) and performs significantly better than most individual countries in Europe. The UK has been a centre for higher education since the early 16th century. Many world-leading universities are based in the region, including the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, University College London, King's College London and Royal Veterinary College in London; University of Brighton and University of Sussex in Brighton; Bournemouth University and Southampton Solent University in Bournemouth; Chichester.

The South East is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It is bordered to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the counties of Essex, Kent, Surrey and Berkshire. To the north the region is bordered by a line drawn from Bedfordshire to Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire that includes Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire and Oxfordshire; these are sometimes referred to as the Western Counties which makes Huntingdonshire a gateway to the region.

Its top tier of government is split between Kent (administered by Kent County Council), Sussex (administered by Sussex County Council) and Surrey (administered by Surrey County Council). The South East England region comprises the ceremonial counties of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex. Confusingly, Historic counties do not necessarily match current administrative areas, hence Berkshire is not synonymous with the administrative area of Berkshire.

The South East has the highest percentage of people who are religious in England — over 50% according to a 2011 survey — more than twice the national percentage. The region is very diverse geographically and has a range of scenery, including coastline in the south east and in the east Hampshire Downs. The Isle of Wight is also a distinct area of countryside, almost entirely surrounded by sea which is closely connected to the mainland by ferry services.

The largest cities in the region are Portsmouth, Southampton, Newbury, Brighton and Reading. South England covers the southern third of the island of Great Britain. It is bordered on the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the counties of East Anglia and Essex, which separate it from East England. To the north lies North England, while to the west lies Wales. The South East has the highest percentage of people who are employed in jobs where one's employer or client is located more than 25 miles from where one works.

In 2012, it was at 32. 2 per cent; the next highest region was the West Midlands, with a figure of 30. 6 per cent. It is fairly well defined in the north, west and east sides, but there is little evidence of it to the south. The steep northern scarp slope is a result of Upper Greensand being pushed up the dip. 9miles or just over 65km), and London Stansted 24. 6 miles (39.

Governance and politics

Most local government functions are carried out by one of five Unitary Authorities, which each cover large towns or conurbations: Brighton & Hove, Portsmouth, Southampton, and the Isle of Wight. The rest of England are divided into districts, boroughs and parishes for smaller towns; in Greater London however this basic structure is complicated by both the existence of the City of London Corporation together with 33 smaller authorities called London Boroughs, which are unitary authorities in law.

Second World War

During the Second World War, Bucks was a base for Civil Defence and a number of anti-aircraft missile sites were set up. No. 22 Anti-Aircraft Group RAF operated several sites in Buckinghamshire including High Wycombe, Goring, Great Missenden and Waddesdon. There were close links between the military and the local civilian communities during this time as well as reunions after the end of hostilities. The latter saw the forming of the Veteran's Association Reunion group based in Aylesbury.

During the Battle of Britain in World War II, Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command headquarters was at Uxbridge and in the Battle of Britain, RAF Uxbridge employed more than 19,000 people. When combined with the three other stations at RAF Chicksands, RAF Bovingdon and RAF Watnall RAF Uxbridge formed part of London Air Defence Area. Given the amount of aerial skirmishes in the skies above, it's little wonder that Buckinghamshire is home to some beautiful examples of early 20th century British architecture.

Many of these can be found dotted around two towns in particular: High Wycombe and Marlow. There were 'reception areas'for bombers and fighters, away from where properties were damaged. The villages of Malden Rushett and Wallasea Island off Purfleet were preserved as the urban scenes for the film version of "The Dambusters" featuring Richard Todd. Each district has a council(or unitary council) that is responsible for local services such as building regulations and local planning applications.

Historical boundaries

The south east England region contains five ceremonial counties: Essex, Kent, Hertfordshire, Oxfordshire and Surrey. Bedfordshire is sometimes included, although it is part of the East of England region. Buckinghamshire, a historic county of mostly small villages and towns that was known as the County of Buckingham in 1874, is a unitary authority benefiting from the status afforded by being outside the London commuter belt whilst strongly associated with Greater London. The South East England region comprises the historic counties of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex.

The region is bounded by London and the Thames Estuary to the south and the English Channel to the south-west. Its main population centres today are in outer suburban areas along the edge of South East England. Prior to 2009, the south east operated as a decentralised government office region, with three Strategic Health Authorities, 33 Primary Care Trusts, and 22 fire authorities. The South East (SE) region of England includes Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex.

Governance and politics

The South East has no single system of metropolitan government, and most political responsibility lies with the 21 non-metropolitan district councils within it. The largest of these is Surrey, while West Sussex is the smallest. Unlike other areas with county councils, Berkshire has no geographic distinction and is unused. With regards to planning, most of the region forms part of the South East England Planning Region while areas north of the River Thames (Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire) form part of the East of England Planning Region.

South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at 53,484 km2 (20,816 sq mi). It accounts for 38. 2% of the landmass of England, compared with 25. 1% for South West England and 31. 4% for London. This arises from a markedly higher population density throughout eastern England and slightly lower population density in western parts; only the two northernmost counties of North Yorkshire and Northumberland are non-detached portions of the North of England.

Westminster seats

There are two ways to look at this dominance: First, as a huge success, and the second, as an issue that needs to be addressed. The Conservative Party is often considered the party of the wealthy and well-off. It is for this reason that Labour has dominated many other areas of England such as the North and most cities with a big working class population. So why is it that the South East is such an exception to this rule? The Tories dominance in the area is also one of the worst kept secrets in British politics.

It’s not necessarily because of their policies but rather their lack of them they are fairly right wing but don’t explicitly say so. The South East is the wealthiest, and — apart from Northern Ireland — the most Eurosceptic region of England. It has the highest proportion of people with over five years of tertiary education in the English regions, and a higher than average number of Renters. In 2005, after a review by the Boundary Commission for England, it had an electorate of just under 7,800,000 voters.

Currently there are 72 Members of Parliament (MPs), with three seats being vacant as of February 2009: Gravesham (resigned by Liam Fox), Lewes (David Lepper) and Oxford West and Abingdon (Dr Evan Harris). The South East was a stronghold of the Conservative Party for much of the 20th century. The region is one of the most affluent in the country, has a high proportion of skilled voters and an abundance of Conservative-leaning rural voters. However, it has become less favourable towards the Conservatives in recent years, as its towns become increasingly diverse and socially liberal, whilst its rural areas have given way to affluent suburbs (and increasingly UKIP support) in several areas.

The 2015 General Election was an electoral landslide victory for the Conservatives in the South East. They held every constituency they were defending as well as gaining Thurrock and Croydon Central from Labour. In manifesto promises, the Conservatives have stated that they will "re-examine the case for a new runway to relieve pressure on Heathrow". The South East contains many constituencies where the Conservatives have majorities over 40%, the largest being 57. 5% held by Mary Macleod.


The region is home to seven universities. Oxford and Cambridge Universities are considered by many to be the most prestigious universities in the world. The London School of Economics has been described as the world’s leading social science institution for both teaching and research, and it lies in the heart of London. The University of Warwick (including Warwick Business School) is ranked equal 89th best in the world by QS World University Rankings 2013/14.

There are eight universities in Oxford and eleven in Cambridge, all of which were founded between the 12th century and the 16th century. Both cities have a large number of independent schools (i. e. schools that are not part of a local authority). Some of these include Eton College, Winchester College, Radley College, The Oratory School, St. David's School, Wellington College, Reading School, Lancing College and Harrow School. The New Statesman ranked the University of Cambridge as second in the United Kingdom and 21st in the world as of 2014.

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2014 put it at sixth place. In 2015, the QS World University Rankings rated it 25th globally. It was ranked 24th in a 2016 study assessing the top 200 military academies in the world, and 21st in reputation. Also of note are the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London and King's College London, all three of which are ranked in the global top 20 in the THES world rankings.

The London School of Economics, considered one of the world's foremost social science institutions, is a member of the Russell Group and also a core member of Global Universities Network. The University of Cambridge is the second most famous because of its status as a public university with a history stretching back to 1209. It has always been regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world, and today attracts 40,000 applicants.

The University of Cambridge aims to be ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by 2025. Universities in the UK are mostly public institutions, with fewer than 5% of students attending private colleges. The University of Buckingham. The second largest majority in any seat is for the Labour Party at Southampton, Test where Peter Lunn has a majority of 38. 7%. Most of East Anglia is part of the region.


Basingstoke is a former industrial town, including the headquarters of W H Smith, which in many North American cities would be considered a department store. Many of the other industries have gone or diversified into services, although over time these too have reduced in number; most notably the roundabout at the north-eastern end of Worting Road was once the centre of Basingstoke's aircraft industry. 4km). 412722, 2. 581929) coordinates.


The 2001 Census shows that occupationally Oxford residents are split roughly in half with the top three occupations being professional (26. 5%), clerical (14. 2%) and executive (13%). Light industry accounts for around 14%, admin and support (13%), manufacturing (9%) and sales (7. 1%). Oxford has had a declining textile industry since the 19th century (see History). Currently GUS publish data showing that 10% of workers in the city commute via car, van, etc., 15% by public transport and 69% walk, cycle or use a motorcycle.


There are a number of local radio stations in the area. These include Coast FM, which broadcasts across the Southampton, Portsmouth and Isle of Wight areas; Radio Hampshire, broadcasting to Southampton, Portsmouth and Winchester; Splash FM, broadcasting to South Hampshire; and The Breeze, broadcasting to Basingstoke and north-east Hampshire. The BBC operate a large television studio in Southampton where both South and South East Today are produced from. ITV's regional news service for the South is based in Whiteley, near Fareham, Hampshire.

The South Today newsroom also produces national news for BBC One from time to time. Eastern Daily Press (EDP) is a regional newspaper based in Norwich, Norfolk. EDP publishes three titles. The flagship Eastern Daily Press is published Monday to Saturday. Meanwhile the Norwich Evening News is published on a Tuesday and Friday, and the Bowyers Journal on a Wednesday. Media in the United Kingdom has a range of national and local newspapers, radio stations, television channels, and websites.


Sport in England is governed by a network of national and local bodies. Sport England is the new organisation responsible for distributing funds and facilitating co-ordination of the governing bodies. The English Sports Council was created to promote sport and active lifestyles, but was replaced in 2000 by Sport England. Sport England has a wide-ranging role in stimulating grassroots participation as well as developing competition in the elite level. There are five national sports federations (NSFs) for individual sports with separate membership structures.

Sport in England is controlled by the two governing bodies, which are responsible for advising the Four Home Unions, the national sport governing bodies for rugby union (England Rugby Football Union), cricket (England and Wales Cricket Board), rugby league (England Rugby League) and football (The Football Association). There are also separate representative bodies for individual sports—this structure was instigated by the Sports Council in 1989. Sport in England is controlled by the Sports Council, a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).

There are separate sports councils for each of the countries of the United Kingdom. Sport England is responsible for distributing lottery funding. The England team's current charge is the 2014 FIFA World Cup, although the FA has put together an unsuccessful bid to host the tournament. Sport in England is regulated by the Sports Council and the national governing bodies of each sport. Sport England is responsible for distributing lottery funding to sports in the country.

Get around

A good alternative is taking the "Ubers" (or other similar systems) if you can find them. These are private chauffeurs in cars who will charge you a flat rate. Though not so common in Havana these days, classic American cars (1940s, 1950s, 1960s) are still seen on the streets. Taxis can be expensive (especially in the city), and it's risky to ride on motorcycles or mopeds (known locally as '''motodops''') although they can be convenient and are cheapest when in a group of three or more.

Car rental companies are established all over the island, Hampshire Local ( You can rent a car to drive around or travel in your own rental car. Gasoline is extremely expensive and expect to pay up to 100 USD for a full tank. A few local taxi companies: 900 22 44 00, 903 29 29 29. But unlike in many other countries in Europe it's not customary to haggle for price. A ten-minute ride costs about €10. You may also rent a car, usually a fairly cheap proposition by Western standards.

Taxis are plentiful and affordable. Some will try to overcharge you. The prices are always on a piece of paper in the window, so never overpay. Negotiate rates before getting into the car. If you are planning to take a taxi somewhere, it's always a good idea to ask several different servers about what price you should expect to pay for your journey. In Krabi the best price is usually 150 baht from Ao Nang to Railay and vice-versa, although you may encounter occasional taxis wanting 200-300 baht.

By bus

Buses run along the same route as trams often,where they are more extensive. Most towns and some villages have a bus service. The buses will usually also stop at main roads like railway stations on the way. The timetable is posted at major stops and within the bus itself. A typical amount of time between leaving one town and reaching your destination is about twenty minutes. Usually in the summer months people use the bus for holidays, while in winter many of them are commuters who live in a different county to where they work, so don't need to drive to work themselves.

To find out which company operates the buses you wish to use, it is best to ask at any National Tourist Office or in this case, the coach provider will have a web site that will do an online search  for all routes. This should bring up a list of times and prices available. Once you have picked your next destination, go back into the site to find the information about the bus that goes there.

Your first bus is the hardest to plan, as you are not yet sure exactly where you are going or what buses are undertaken by various companies. It is essential that you check here before setting out on your journey to ensure you reach your destination. Some of the bigger towns such as Wellington and Auckland have interesting public transport systems. In Wellington you can travel on the famous  funicular railway, and in Auckland you can go on a ferry across the harbour.

By car

On Sundays, driving in the region may take you a little longer than usual because many people use this day for a trip out or to visit family. If your destination involves driving long distances on motorways, consider using the cruise control function of your car. The London part of the motorway system is well covered by the region's three Skyrails (London Eye, Jubilee (junction with C2) and Central lines), so no more than two train changes are required to get all around central London.

By rail. Road traffic can be a real problem so bear in mind that most regions are well connected by train. Thameslink is a new service serving south and east London with lines from Bedfordshire to Brighton going through central London. The semi-express service called Thameslink city is not as nice as the regular trains but it runs more frequently (every 15 minutes) and there is also an Intercity express service with longer journey times.

The M25 London orbital motorway is the most important route for commuters and travellers alike, and it is recommended for any journey in the region. The motorway connects London to the south-east with Slough (a large town nearby), to the east with Maidstone, Dover and Canterbury, and to the west with Reading, Oxford and Worcester. The M25 London orbital motorway is 90 miles (144 km) long and encircles almost the entire inner part of Greater London.

In outer London are the M20 connecting Dover to Maidstone on the north and The Brighton Road connecting Redhill in the south-east to Purley and Croydon to its north-west. Taxi rates are reasonable, although on the expensive side. Book in advance if possible, especially if you are going somewhere at odd hours or during peak times (evening rush hour). There are taxi firms everywhere; many are by booking only find the phone number of the local company and phone ahead.

By train

Getting your bike on a train can be a dodgy operation. If the bikes are not well secured they may go missing, or even if they're normally secured but not properly locked then they will still end up being nicked by whichever company manages to 'find'them. Cycle carriers can be hired from train station ticket offices and cost around £5-£10 per bike per journey. Many UK train companies have now introduced cycle spaces in which to accommodate cycles in single carriages on peak services.

If you intend to take cycles on trains regularly, it may be worth getting a Cycle Railcard a folding card that avoids having to buy tickets every time you use your bike (although this is only available to residents of the UK or European Economic Area. A train trip can be a truly great day out and an excellent way to see the country, as many cities and towns have a station right in the centre.

Many towns and cities have stations that were built specifically for inter-war 'luxury'trains and these can be great examples of industrial design. Look out for the chimney pots lining the platforms of older stations as these indicate a former railway hotel. In south England, the historic and picturesque lines of Devon and Cornwall have been followed by a high-speed line to the Channel Tunnel.  Unfortunately, this project's chronic mismanagement has resulted in severe cost overruns in the hundreds of millions of pounds and counting.